In addition to different fields of study a kindergarten has a very important role in developing different general skills of a child. General skills consists of the following four groups: playing skills; cognitive and learning skills; social skills; reflexive skills.

General skills of 3 to 4 year old children

Expected skills of 3 to 4 year old children in different fields of study


General skills (age 3-4)

Playing skills

Play is the main activity of pre-school age children. During the game a child acquires new information and skills, reflects his/her feelings and wishes, learns to communicate and attains experience and rules of behaviour.    

Playing skills form the basis for all general skills and for the development of skills and knowledge needed in different fields of learning and educational activities.

  • enjoys games and is able to concentrate on game;
  • applies creatively his/her experience, knowledge and impressions of the surrounding world in games;
  • initiates different games and develops their content;
  • takes different roles in games;
  • follows simples rules of games;
  • is able to resolve problems emerging during a game; enjoys winning;
  • uses different aids creatively in games.

Cognitive and learning skills

Cognitive skills help us to control our cognition processes – perception, attention, memory, thinking, emotions and motivation.  

Learning skills mean the child’s ability to acquire new information, attain knowledge and skills, explore and experiment. Learning skills form on the basis of the development of cognitive skills.

  • understands simple relationships (quantum, cause, consequence);
  • understands what he/she has heard, reacts to it and uses dialogue;
  • acts purposefully, is able to concentrate for up to 15 minutes;
  • plans his/her everyday activities and completes started actions;
  • in novel situations acts according to an adult’s instructions;
  • has a positive attitude towards learning – wants to learn, explore, ask questions, discover and experiment;
  • groups items and phenomena on the basis of their characteristics.

Social skills 

Social skills are a child’s ability to communicate with others, perceive himself/herself, as well as partners, adopt generally recognised practices and proceed from generally recognised beliefs.

  • tries to understand other people’s feelings;
  • wants and dares to communicate – is interested in other people;
  • cares about other people, helps others and, if necessary, asks for help;
  • participates in forming rules valid  within a group;
  • knows how to deal with other people’s feelings;
  • establishes friendships;
  • understands the meaning of “mine-strange-common”;
  • makes difference between good and bad behaviour;  
  • understands that people can differ from each other;
  • follows agreed rules and generally recognised manners.

Reflexive skills

Reflexive skills are the child’s ability to distinguish and perceive his/her skills, capabilities and emotions and to control his/her behaviour.

  • is able to describe his/her emotions and express strong feelings such as joy and anger in an appropriate manner;  
  • describes his/her virtues and skills;
  • knows how to behave in different situations and changes his/her behaviour according to feedback;
  • initiates games and activities;
  • acts independently;  
  • knows how to act safely;  
  • is capable of self-servicing and has the initial working habit;  
  • at the end of an activity cleans up after him/her.   


 <= go to age 2-3 years

go to age 5-7 years =>


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