A kindergarten has an extremely important role in developing different general skills of children of that age. General skills consist of the following four groups: playing skills; cognitive and learning skills; social skills; reflexive skills.

General skills of 2 to 3 year old children

Expected skills of 2 to 3 year old children in different fields of study




General skills (age 2-3)

Playing skills

Play is the main activity of pre-school age children. During the game a child acquires new information and skills, reflects his/her feelings and wishes, learns to communicate and attains experience and rules of behaviour.   

Playing skills form the basis for all general skills and for the development of skills and knowledge needed in different fields of learning and educational activities. 

  • enjoys the game and is able to concentrate on the game;
  • creatively applies in games his/her experience, knowledge and impressions of the surrounding world;
  • plays different games;
  • takes different roles during games; 
  • follows simple rules of games;
  • uses creatively different means in games.  
Cognitive and learning skills 

Cognitive skills help us to control our cognition processes – perception, attention, memory, thinking, emotions and motivation.  

Learning skills mean the child’s ability to acquire new information, attain knowledge and skills, explore and experiment. Learning skills form on the basis of the development of cognitive skills. 

  • understands easy relationships (reason, consequence); 
  • understands things he/she hears and reacts accordingly; 
  • acts purposefully, able to concentrate for 5 minutes;
  • completes activities started
  • positively minded about learning – wants to learn, explore, ask questions, discover and experiment.

Social skills 

Social skills are a child’s ability to communicate with others, perceive himself/herself, as well as partners, adopt generally recognised practices and proceed from generally recognised beliefs. 

  • tries to understand other people’s feelings;
  • wants and dares to communicate – is interested in other people;
  • cares about other people, helps others and, if necessary, asks for help;
  • knows how to deal with other people’s feelings;
  • understands the meaning of “mine-strange-common”;
  • makes difference between good and bad;  
  • understands that people can differ from each other;
  • follows rules and generally recognised manners; 

Reflexive skills

Reflexive skills are the child’s ability to distinguish and perceive his/her skills, capabilities and emotions and to control his/her behaviour. 

  • is able to describe his/her emotions and express strong feelings such as joy and anger in an appropriate manner; 
  • knows how to behave in different situations and changes his/her behaviour according to feedback;
  • initiates games and activities
  • acts independently; 
  • is capable of self-servicing and has the first work habit; 
  • at the end of a game cleans up after him/her.  


go to age 3-4 years =>


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